This polygon shapefile contains civil parish boundaries for England and Wales as of 2011. In England, a civil parish is an administrative territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. This layer is part of the Office of National Statistics (ONS) Boundary Dataset supply, 2001-2011. This dataset is intended for researchers, students, and policy makers for reference and mapping purposes, and may be used for basic applications such as viewing, querying, and map output production, or to provide a basemap to support graphical overlays and analysis with other spatial data. Great Britain. Office for National Statistics. (2011). Civil Parishes: England and Wales, 2011. Great Britain. Ordnance Survey. Available at: http://purl.stanford.edu/wj697gb2172. This layer is presented in the WGS84 coordinate system for web display purposes. Downloadable data are provided in native coordinate system or projection.